An overview of the effects of earthquakes and the kobe earthquake of 1995

Secondary effects result from the very temporary passage of seismic waves, but can occur over very large regions, causing wide-spread damage.

With large spacings, the transverse reinforcement resulted in reduced drift capacity under the high axial loads from overburden soils. Perhaps the most dramatic failure was the complete destruction of the Hanshin Expressway. Also the Hanshin Expressway was virtually destroyed severing most transportation routes in the Kansai region of Japan.

However, the newly completed artificial island supporting Kansai International Airport was not significantly affected, due to being further away from the epicenter and because it was built to the latest standards. Hanshin refers to the region between Osaka and Kobe.

There were after shocks of this earthquake. The article discusses differences in US and Japan structural design.

All of the above are secondary effects of the Kobe disaster. Older steel buildings performed badly with round bars for beams and built up columns made with channel sections.


The Meishin Expressway was only lightly damaged, but was closed during the day until February 17, so that emergency vehicles could easily access the hardest-hit areas to the west. A third type of wood structure is the more recent prefabricated timber house, which performed very well attesting to the power of the updated building codes.

Why did Haiti suffer so much more than Kobe? Despite this, many older buildings still collapsed or caught fire. Only a few blocks were lost. Two poular types of wood frame stuctures exist in Japan which are Shinkabe houses and Ohkabe houses Chung, People were forced to wait in corridors due to the overcrowding and lack of space.

Also, in many cases excessive openings in walls resulted in reduced cross sectional areas which caused major diagonal tension cracks during the earthquake. Haiti was still devastated 12 months afterwards and is still recovering to this day.

While under shear and vertical loading, over 30 central RC columns collapsed because they did not have sufficient confining steel Narra-Montesinos Gustavo, With high moisture content in the marine clays, the deposited sand and granite generated an average settlement of 4 meters and settlement is still occurring Brebbia, These artificial islands were created by placing sandy decomposed granite over top of compressible marine clay.

Signs, windows, and the entire fronts of buildings collapsed into the street.

Earthquake Effects

Immediately before the collapse of the Kashiwai building Ten spans of the Hanshin Expressway Route 43 in three locations in Kobe and Nishinomiya were knocked over, blocking a link that carried forty percent of Osaka-Kobe road traffic.

Unfortunately, several common design decisions and substandard material and construction methods resulted in widespread structural failure throughout Kobe Japan.

Earthquake case studies: GCSE

The Japanese stock market faced a decline. In the first location, the columns moved in displaced in opposite directions dislodging the roadbed from supports.

Effects on Lifelines Debris choking streets was just one of the coincidences that made this earthquake so deadly. Charities were quick to raise funds for Haiti and contribute medics with specialist equipment but these take time to arrive.

Kobe, Japan is near 3 tectonic plates great big slabs of the earths crust that move around due to the convection currents massive circuits of lava under the surface of the earth.

Would you like to make it the primary and merge this question into it? New laws were passed to make buildings and transport structures even more earthquake proof. The geological conditions right at a particular site play a crucial role in the strength, and length, of seismic shaking that can be experienced there.

In cases where dual shear wall and SRC moment frames were employed, large diagonal tension cracks occured in the shear walls. There were four foreshocksbeginning with the largest Mj 3.

The ground acceleration versus distance plot at left shows this effect near Kobe.A Brief Overview of Earthquakes; 3. The Kobe Earthquake ; 4. The Earthquake's Effects; 5.

Great Hanshin earthquake

Relief and Aid Efforts; 6. The Management Plan The Effects of the Kobe Earthquake. Kobe earthquake, Japan.

Retrieved May 22,from At in the early morning of January 17,a magnitude earthquake rocked the city of Kobe and its vicinity. It was Tuesday, and most of the people were still deep asleep after a three-day long holiday.

The earthquake was officially named the Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake, but it is better known as the Kobe earthquake worldwide. Oct 10,  · GCSE geography kobe earthquake case study Japan— Overview of Earthquakes & Tectonics - Duration: GCSE Geography- Effects of the Haiti Earthquake -.

Seismology Kobe Japan is located in an earthquake prone region dominated by complex faulting systems (Akai, ). The Hanshin region and Awaji Island are affected by the subducting Philippine Sea Plate and the Plastic Plate.

Jan. 17, Hyogo-Ken Nanbu Earthquake The worst earthquake catastrophe in years occurred on western Honshu Island early this year. More than people perished in southern Hyogo prefecture, most in the city of Kobe, Japan's most important port. On 17 JanuaryKobe was hit by an earthquake of magnitude on the Richter scale.

Primary effects of the Kobe earthquake included over 6, people dead and 43, i njured. Overwere left homeless.

What were the primary effects of the Kobe earthquake?

houses were completely destroyed, andwere damaged.

An overview of the effects of earthquakes and the kobe earthquake of 1995
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